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Am J Med Genet. 1998 Oct 30;80(1):42-5.

Atypical manifestations of two cases of trisomy 9 syndrome: rethinking development delay.

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  • 1Department of Pediatric Neurology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation and Children's Hospital, Ohio 44195, USA.


Trisomy 9 syndrome is characterized by "bulbous" nose, microphthalmia, dislocated limbs, and other anomalies of skeletal, cardiac, genitourinary, and central nervous systems. With the exception of one reported case study, all surviving infants have had severe mental impairment. The prospect of severe mental retardation often overwhelms parents who are faced with prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 9. We report on two new cases of mosaic trisomy 9, both of whom are only mildly developmentally delayed. One patient presented with the distinctive facial appearance, large fontanels, and joint abnormalities. The other had none of the typical congenital abnormalities. However, the patient was found to have a congenital heart defect and hypoplastic left heart syndrome, which to our knowledge has not been reported previously in the trisomy 9 syndrome. When these two patients are added to the published patients with this syndrome, there appears to be a range of manifestations, especially with respect to mental status, which has not fully been recognized.

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