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J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 1998 Oct;48(10):931-40.

Characterization of emissions of volatile organic compounds from interior alkyd paint.

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ARCADIS Geraghty & Miller, Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.


Alkyd paint continues to be used indoors for application to wood trim, cabinet surfaces, and some kitchen and bathroom walls. Alkyd paint may represent a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indoors because of the frequency of use and amount of surface painted. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting research to characterize VOC emissions from paint and to develop source emission models that can be used for exposure assessment and risk management. The technical approach for this research involves both analysis of the liquid paint to identify and quantify the VOC contents and dynamic small chamber emissions tests to characterize the VOC emissions after application. The predominant constituents of the primer and two alkyd paints selected for testing were straight-chain alkanes (C9-C12); C8-C9 aromatics were minor constituents. Branched chain alkanes were the predominant VOCs in a third paint. A series of tests were performed to evaluate factors that may affect emissions following application of the coatings. The type of substrate (glass, wallboard, or pine board) did not have a substantial impact on the emissions with respect to peak concentrations, the emissions profile, or the amount of VOC mass emitted from the paint. Peak concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) as high as 10,000 mg/m3 were measured during small chamber emissions tests at 0.5 air exchanges per hour (ACH). Over 90% of the VOCs were emitted from the primer and paints during the first 10 hr following application. Emissions were similar from paint applied to bare pine board, a primed board, or a board previously painted with the same paint. The impact of other variable, including film thickness, air velocity at the surface, and air-exchange rate (AER) were consistent with theoretical predictions for gas-phase, mass transfer-controlled emissions. In addition to the alkanes and aromatics, aldehydes were detected in the emissions during paint drying. Hexanal, the predominant aldehyde in the emissions, was not detected in the liquid paint and was apparently an oxidation product formed during drying. This paper summarizes the results of the product analyses and a series of small chamber emissions tests. It also describes the use of a mass balance approach to evaluate the impact of test variables and to assess the quality of the emissions data.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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