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Biol Psychiatry. 1998 Oct 15;44(8):733-8.

Relationship between patient variables and plasma clozapine concentrations: a dosing nomogram.

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Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA.



Previous work has suggested factors such as gender, smoking behavior, dose, and age affect the amount of drug a patient requires to achieve a desired plasma concentration of clozapine. Plasma clozapine concentrations ranging from 350 to 504 ng/mL in treatment-refractory schizophrenics and schizoaffective patients produce response rates ranging approximately 55-80%. Without the aid of clozapine plasma concentration monitoring, 3-6 months are recommended for a therapeutic clozapine trial. Data suggest that the lag time to response can be reduced by administering a dose that produces a therapeutic clozapine concentration.


To generate a clozapine dosing nomogram to predict clozapine steady-state plasma concentrations, a cohort of 71 patients was collected via retrospective chart review and/or patient interview. Clozapine steady-state plasma concentrations and demographic variables were obtained. Multiple-linear regression was utilized to examine the relationship between the plasma clozapine concentration and the independent variables.


The dosing model that optimally predicted steady-state clozapine plasma concentrations included the variables dose (mg/day), smoking (yes = 0 and no = 1), gender, and a dose-gender interaction variable. The model explained 47% of the variance in the clozapine concentrations (F = 14.42, p < .001, r2 = .47). Two equations, one for male subjects, i.e., clozapine (ng/mL) = 111 (smoke) + 0.464 (dose) + 145, and one for female subjects, i.e., clozapine (ng/mL) = 111 (smoke) + 1.590 (dose)-149, were derived to predict clozapine steady-state plasma concentrations to serve as a clozapine dosing guide for clinicians.


A clozapine dosing nomogram was constructed as a clinical aid to facilitate clozapine dosing.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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