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Virology. 1998 Sep 30;249(2):367-78.

Use of GPR1, GPR15, and STRL33 as coreceptors by diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus envelope proteins.

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Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 19104, USA.


Human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively) use chemokine receptors as coreceptors along with CD4 to mediate viral entry. Several orphan receptors, including GPR1, GPR15, and STRL33, can also serve as coreceptors for a more limited number of HIV and SIV isolates. We investigated whether these orphan receptors could function as efficient coreceptors for a diverse group of HIV and SIV envelopes (Envs) in comparison with the principal coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4. We found that a limited number of HIV-1 isolates could mediate inefficient cell-cell fusion with the orphan receptors relative to CCR5 and CXCR4; however, none of the orphan receptors tested could support pseudotype virus infection despite robust infection via CCR5 or CXCR4. All except one of the SIV Envs tested mediated some degree of cell-cell fusion and pseudotype infection, with target cells expressing at least one of these orphan receptors, although CCR5 proved to be the most efficient coreceptor for infection. Only one SIV Env protein, BK28, could mediate infection using GPR1 as a coreceptor, albeit much less efficiently than with CCR5. In addition, use of these coreceptors did not correlate with the published tropism of the SIV clones and was strictly CD4 dependent for both SIV and HIV. We also examined the expression of these molecules in cell lines and primary cells widely used for virus propagation and as targets for infection. All cells examined expressed STRL33, a more limited number expressed GPR15, and GPR1 was much more restricted in its expression pattern. Taken together, our results indicate that GPR15 and STRL33 are rarely used by HIV-1 but are more frequently used by SIV strains, although not in a manner that correlates with SIV tropism.

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