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J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol. 1998 Jul-Sep;18(3):129-37.

Prenatal anticonvulsant drug exposure: teratogenic effect on the dentition.

Author information

1
Genetics and Teratology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114-2696, USA.

Abstract

Prenatal exposure to anticonvulsant medication has been shown to cause craniofacial dysmorphology, prenatal growth retardation, hypoplastic nails and phalanges, and visceral abnormalities. In this study we examined maxillary and mandibular stone dental casts (45) and panoramic radiographs (39) from 45 individuals with ages 4.5 to 22.0 years for changes in mesiodistal crown size of deciduous and permanent teeth, and the presence of dental anomalies. These individuals had been exposed prenatally to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Mesiodistal crown diameters were measured from the dental casts and converted into standard scores (Z), using published normative data from the University of Michigan Longitudinal Craniofacial Growth Series. A significant increase in mesiodistal crown dimensions of the posterior maxillary teeth was observed, specifically in primary molars and their permanent premolar successors, as well as permanent molars. Changes in tooth size were more common in females than in males. Dental maturity, assessed using the panoramic radiographs, was equal to chronologic age. An increased frequency of hypodontia was the only notable dental anomaly.

PMID:
9785217
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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