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Thyroid. 1998 Sep;8(9):859-64.

Thyroid hyperfunction during pregnancy.

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1
Université Libre de Bruxelles, Hospital Saint-Pierre, Department of Internal Medicine, Thyroid Investigation Clinic, Brussels, Belgium.

Abstract

The present report focuses on the two main causes of hyperthyroidism observed in the pregnant state: Graves' disease (GD) and gestational transient thyrotoxicosis. Together, the prevalence of hyperthyroidism may represent 3% to 4% of all pregnancies, and therefore constitutes an important clinical issue. Concerning GD, the variable presentations of the disease (women under treatment, in remission, or considered cured) and specific alterations occurring in pregnancy are discussed: changes in thyrotropin (TSH) receptor antibody titers, the risk of fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis, the outcome of pregnancy in relation to the control of hyperthyroidism, and the treatment of active GD during and after pregnancy with antithyroid drugs. Gestational transient thyrotoxicosis is associated with a direct stimulation of the maternal thyroid gland by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and has been shown to be directly related to both the amplitude and duration of peak hCG values. The syndrome is usually transient, observed at the end of the first trimester, and is frequently associated with emesis. Finally, we propose a global strategy for the systematic screening of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy, based on an algorithm that allows for the diagnosis of both autoimmune and nonautoimmune forms of hyperthyroidism in the pregnant state.

PMID:
9777758
DOI:
10.1089/thy.1998.8.859
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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