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Virology. 1998 Oct 10;250(1):67-75.

Retrograde transport of intact poliovirus through the axon via the fast transport system.

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Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639, Japan.


Intramuscularly inoculated poliovirus is thought to spread to the central nervous system through neural pathways in humans, monkeys, and the transgenic (Tg) mice carrying the human poliovirus receptor (PVR) gene. To gain insight into molecular mechanisms for the retrograde axonal transport of poliovirus, resulting in the expression of neurovirulence, a poliovirus-sensitive ICR-PVRTg21 mouse line (Tg21) was used as an animal model for poliomyelitis. We detected poliovirus antigens in axons of the sciatic nerve. All of the Tg21 mice, which had been inoculated into the calves with 1 x 10(6) pfu of the Mahoney strain of type 1 poliovirus, showed symptoms of paralysis in the inoculated limbs (initial paralysis) within 48 h after the inoculation. The appearance of this initial paralysis was observed in mice whose sciatic nerves were transected at various times after virus inoculation. The results were indicators of the velocity of poliovirus transportation through the sciatic nerves under analysis. Poliovirus-related materials recovered from the sciatic nerve were mainly composed of intact 160S virion particles. The amount of 160S particle recovered was greatly reduced by coinjection with anti-PVR monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that one of the fast retrograde axonal transport systems is involved in poliovirus dissemination through the sciatic nerve and that IM-inoculated poliovirus is incorporated into the sciatic nerve as intact particles in a PVR-dependent manner, as it is in humans.

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