Send to

Choose Destination
Dev Biol. 1998 Oct 15;202(2):253-63.

Experimental induction of BMP-4 expression leads to apoptosis in the paraxial and lateral plate mesoderm.

Author information

Institut of Anatomy, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, D-79001, Germany.


In the avian embryo, epithelialization of the segmental plate and formation of an epithelial dermomyotome depend on signals from the neural tube and the ectoderm overlying the paraxial mesoderm. In this study, we report that ectoderm removal in combination with barrier insertion between the axial organs and the segmental plate leads to an induction of BMP-4 expression in the paraxial mesoderm. In the lateral plate, ectoderm removal alone leads to an increase of BMP-4 expression. Application of BMP-4 protein results in a lack of epithelialization of the paraxial mesoderm. In order to investigate whether the loss of epithelial structures after these manipulations can be attributed to a change in cell fate, a change in cell proliferation, or the induction of apoptosis, the paraxial mesoderm was tested for expression of Msx-2, BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7. Moreover, BrdU and TUNEL staining were carried out. The inhibition of epithelialization after ectoderm removal alone and after segregation of the axial organs is accompanied neither by an increase in apoptosis nor by a reduction of the proliferation rate in the paraxial mesoderm. On the other hand, an ectopic BMP-4 expression in the paraxial mesoderm after ectoderm removal in combination with barrier insertion coincides with the occurrence of apoptotic cells and reduction of proliferation rate in this tissue. Increase of apoptosis and decrease in cell proliferation are observed in the paraxial and lateral plate mesoderm also after application of BMP-4 protein.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center