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Immunology. 1998 Jul;94(3):438-44.

Intranasal administration of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) DNA vaccine with interleukin-2 expression plasmid enhances cell-mediated immunity against HIV-1.

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Department of Bacteriology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Japan.


DNA vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) can induce substantial levels of HIV-1-specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity. To develop more potent HIV-1 DNA vaccine formulations, we used a murine model to explore the immunomodulatory effects of an interleukin-2 (IL-2) expression plasmid on an HIV-1 DNA vaccine following intranasal administration of the combination. When the vaccine and expression plasmid were incorporated into cationic liposomes and administered to mice, the HIV-1-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity response and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity were significantly increased. Restimulated immune lymphoid cells showed enhanced production of both IL-2 and interferon-gamma and reduced secretion of IL-4. The level of total antibody to HIV-1 antigen was not greatly changed by coadministration of the DNA vaccine and IL-2 expression plasmid. An analysis of serum HIV-1-specific IgG subclasses showed a significant drop in the IgG1/IgG2a ratio in the group that received the plasmid-vaccine combination. These results demonstrate that the IL-2 expression plasmid strongly enhances the HIV-1-specific immune response via activation of T helper type-1 cells.

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