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J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1998 Sep 4;714(2):299-308.

Determination of clozapine, desmethylclozapine and clozapine N-oxide in human plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

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Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Messina, Italy.


An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet detection for the simultaneous determination of clozapine and its two major metabolites in human plasma is described. Analytes are concentrated from alkaline plasma by liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane-isoamyl alcohol (75:25, v/v). The organic phase is back-extracted with 150 microl of 0.1 M dibasic phosphate (pH 2.2 with 25% H3PO4). Triprolidine is used as internal standard. For the chromatographic separation the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-0.06 M phosphate buffer, pH 2.7 with 25% phosphoric acid (48:52, v/v). Analytes are eluted at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min, separated on a 250 x 4.60 mm I.D. analytical column packed with 5 microm C6 silica particles, and measured by UV absorbance detection at 254 nm. The separation requires 7 min. Calibration curves for the three analytes are linear within the clinical concentration range. Mean recoveries were 92.7% for clozapine, 82.0% for desmethylclozapine and 70.4% for clozapine N-oxide. C.V. values for intra- and inter-day variabilities were < or = 13.8% at concentrations between 50 and 1000 ng/ml. Accuracy, expressed as percentage error, ranged from -19.8 to 2.8%. The method was specific and sensitive with quantitation limits of 2 ng/ml for both clozapine and desmethylclozapine and 5 ng/ml for clozapine N-oxide. Among various psychotropic drugs and their metabolites, only 2-hydroxydesipramine caused significant interference. The method is applicable to pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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