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J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 16;273(42):27170-5.

Purinergic receptor modulation of lipopolysaccharide signaling and inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

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Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.


Previous studies have suggested that the P2Z/P2X7 purinergic receptor can participate in nucleotide-induced modulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated inflammatory mediator production. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated whether antagonism of the P2Z/P2X7 receptor can influence LPS signaling and expression of the inducible form of nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In the present study, we demonstrate that pretreatment of RAW 264.7 macrophages with a P2Z/P2X7 receptor antagonist, periodate oxidized adenosine 5'-triphosphate (o-ATP), substantially inhibits LPS-stimulated NO production and iNOS expression without altering cell viability. This effect on LPS-induced iNOS expression is mimicked by a pyridoxal-phosphate-based antagonist (pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid) of the P2Z/P2X7 purinergic receptor, indicating that these results are not unique to o-ATP. Additionally, o-ATP prevents cell death induced by P2Z/P2X7 receptor agonists. To ascertain how P2Z/P2X7 receptor antagonists influence LPS signaling, we evaluated the capacity of o-ATP to regulate LPS-mediated activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB, and the mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and ERK2. These experiments reveal that pretreatment of RAW 264.7 cells with o-ATP attenuates the LPS stimulation of a nuclear factor-kappaB-like binding activity. Moreover, the activation of ERK1 and ERK2 by LPS, but not by the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, is also blocked in RAW 264.7 cells by o-ATP pretreatment. In summary, these data suggest that the P2Z/P2X7 receptor modulates LPS-induced macrophage activation as assessed by iNOS expression and NO production. This report implicates the P2Z/P2X7 receptor in the control of protein kinase cascades and transcriptional processes, and these observations are likely to be important for the development of selective purinergic receptor antagonists for the treatment of septic shock.

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