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J Appl Physiol (1985). 1998 Oct;85(4):1273-8.

Genetic and other determinants of AMP deaminase activity in healthy adult skeletal muscle.

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Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, S-141 86 Huddinge, Sweden.


AMPD1 genotype, relative fiber type composition, training status, and gender were evaluated as contributing factors to the reported variation in AMP deaminase enzyme activity in healthy skeletal muscle. Multifactorial correlative analyses demonstrate that AMPD1 genotype has the greatest effect on enzyme activity. An AMPD1 mutant allele frequency of 13.7 and a 1.7% incidence of enzyme deficiency was found across 175 healthy subjects. Homozygotes for the AMPD1 normal allele have high enzyme activities, and heterozygotes display intermediate activities. When examined according to genotype, other factors were found to affect variability as follows: AMP deaminase activity in homozygotes for the normal allele exhibits a negative correlation with the relative percentage of type I fibers and training status. Conversely, residual AMP deaminase activity in homozygotes for the mutant allele displays a positive correlation with the relative percentage of type I fibers. Opposing correlations in different homozygous AMPD1 genotypes are likely due to relative fiber-type differences in the expression of AMPD1 and AMPD3 isoforms. Gender also contributes to variation in total skeletal muscle AMP deaminase activity, with normal homozygous and heterozygous women showing only 85-88% of the levels observed in genotype-matched men.

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