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Biochemistry. 1998 Oct 6;37(40):14005-13.

Mapping substrate-induced conformational changes in cAMP-dependent protein kinase by protein footprinting.

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Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093-0654, USA.


Upon binding of substrates the catalytic subunit (C) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) undergoes significant induced conformational changes that lead to catalysis. For the free apoenzyme equilibrium favors a more open and malleable conformation while the ternary complex of C, MgATP, and a 20-residue inhibitor peptide [PKI (5-24)] adopts a tight and closed conformation [Zheng, J., et al. (1993) Protein Sci. 2, 1559]. It is not clear that binding of either ligand alone is responsible for this conformational switch or whether both are required. In addition, the catalytic subunit binds MgATP and inhibitor peptide synergistically. The structural basis for this synergism is also not defined at present. Using an Fe-EDTA-mediated protein footprinting technique, the conformational changes associated with the binding of MgATP and the heat stable protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) were probed by mapping the solvent-accessible surface and structural dynamics of C. The conformation of the free enzyme was clearly distinguished from the ternary complex. Furthermore, binding of MgATP alone induced extensive conformational changes, both local and global, that include the glycine-rich loop, the linker connecting the small and large lobes, the catalytic loop, the Mg2+ positioning loop, the activation loop, and the F helix. These changes, similar to those seen in the ternary complex, are consistent with a transition from an open to a more closed conformation and likely reflect the motions that are associated with catalysis and product release. In contrast, the footprinting pattern of C.PKI resembled free C, indicating minimal conformational changes. Binding of MgATP, by shifting the equilibrium to a more closed conformation, "primes" the enzyme so that it is poised for the docking of PKI and provides an explanation for synergism between MgATP and PKI.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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