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Psychol Bull. 1998 Sep;124(2):123-64.

The neuropsychology of 3-D space.

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Air Force Research Laboratory, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas 78235-5104, USA.


The neuropsychological literature on 3-D spatial interactions is integrated using a model of 4 major behavioral realms: (a) peripersonal (visuomotor operations in near-body space), (b) focal extrapersonal (visual search and object recognition), (c) action extrapersonal (orienting in topographically defined space), and (d) ambient extrapersonal (orienting in earth-fixed space). Each is associated with a distinct cortical network: dorsolateral peripersonal, predominantly ventrolateral focal-extrapersonal, predominantly ventromedial action-extrapersonal, and predominantly dorsomedial ambient-extrapersonal systems. Interactions in 3-D space are also regulated neurochemically with dopaminergic and cholinergic excitation associated with extrapersonal activation and noradrenergic and serotonergic excitation associated with peripersonal activation. This model can help explain the 3-D imbalances in prominant neuropsychological disorders.

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