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J Med Virol. 1998 Oct;56(2):159-67.

Development of viremia and humoral and cellular parameters of immune activation after vaccination with yellow fever virus strain 17D: a model of human flavivirus infection.

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University of Ulm, Department of Virology, Germany.


To monitor early and late events of immune system activation after primary and secondary flavivirus infection, 17 healthy persons were vaccinated with the standard 17D vaccine virus strain of yellow fever (YF). Twelve of these persons had not received YF vaccine previously and 5 had been vaccinated once at least 10 years before. Viremia and various parameters of humoral and cellular immune activation were followed daily for 7 days and weekly thereafter. Viremia was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in all 12 first-time vaccinees beginning from the second to the sixth day after vaccination; most tested positive between the fourth and sixth day. Infectious 17D virus was detected using a plaque forming assay in the serum of 7 of the 12 first-time vaccinees. As first parameters of immune activation, neopterin and beta2-microglobulin markedly increased between day 2 and day 6 postvaccination. In parallel to the viremia, circulating CD8+ T-cells significantly increased, with peak levels at day 5 after primary vaccination, indicating an activation of the cellular immune system. Neither viremia nor significant changes of these activation markers were observed in the five revaccinated persons. Neutralizing antibodies directed against the 17D vaccine strain developed in all persons within 2 weeks after vaccination. No correlation was found between the extent of viremia and the titer of neutralizing antibodies. Revaccination was followed by a minor and transient increase of neutralizing antibodies. High titers of neutralizing antibodies persisted for at least 10 years after primary vaccination.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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