Send to

Choose Destination
Hippocampus. 1998;8(4):313-22.

Hippocampal PET activations of memory encoding and retrieval: the HIPER model.

Author information

Rotman Research Institute of Baycrest Centre, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


A meta-analysis of experimentally induced changes in blood flow ("activations") in positron emission tomography (PET) studies of memory has revealed an orderly functional anatomic pattern: Activations in the hippocampal region associated with episodic memory encoding are located primarily in the rostral portions of the region, whereas activations associated with episodic memory retrieval are located primarily in the caudal portions. These findings are based on an analysis of a sample of 54 "hippocampal encoding and retrieval" activations that were culled from an overall database consisting of 52 published PET studies of memory. We refer to this general pattern of rostrocaudal gradient of encoding and retrieval PET activations as the HIPER (Hippocampal Encoding/Retrieval) model. The model suggests a division of memory-related labor between the rostral and caudal portions of the hippocampal formation. Because functional anatomic pattern of encoding and retrieval activation that defines the HIPER model was unprecedented and unexpected, it is difficult to relate the model to what is already known or thought about functional neuroanatomy of episodic memory in the hippocampal regions. The model is interesting primarily because its exploration may yield fresh insights into the neural basis of human memory.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center