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Addiction. 1998 Jul;93(7):1023-32.

Life-time prevalence and risk factors of tobacco/nicotine dependence in male ever-smokers in Japan.

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1
Department of Public Health, Gifu University School of Medicine, Japan. norito@cc.gifu-u.ac.jp

Abstract

To estimate the life-time prevalence rate of tobacco/nicotine dependence and demographic variables and smoking habits associated with the disorder in male ever-smokers in Japan.

DESIGN:

A cross-sectional community-based interview study.

SETTING:

Takayama city, Gifu Prefecture, Japan.

PARTICIPANTS:

A total of 170 male ever-smokers aged 35 years or older selected randomly from a community in Japan were interviewed. The response rate was 85%.

MEASUREMENTS:

The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to make diagnoses of tobacco/nicotine dependence according t ICD-10, DSM-III-R and DSM-IV. The Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (FTQ) was also administered and those who had a FTQ score of 7 or above were identified.

FINDINGS:

The life-time prevalence rates of tobacco/nicotine dependence in male ever-smokers were 42%, 26% and 32% according to ICD-10, DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria, respectively; 19% had a FTQ score of 7 or above. The ICD-10 diagnosis was significantly and negatively associated with quitting smoking (p < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that number of cigarettes per day when they smoked the most was significantly associated with higher life-time risks of the disorder according to DSM-III-R, DSM-IV and Fagerstrom's classification (p < 0.05). The length of cigarette smoked was associated with higher life-time risks of ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnoses, and years of smoking were associated with higher life-time risks of ICD-10, DSM-III-R and DSM-IV diagnoses (p < 0.05). Younger birth cohorts had higher cumulative rates of the disorder according to DSM-IV (p for trend < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Life-time prevalence rates of tobacco/nicotine dependence according to ICD-10, DSM-III-R and DSM-IV in male ever-smokers in Japan were within the range of rates reported in previous US studies; rates of FTQ score of 7 or above were lower. Fagerstrom scores and diagnostic criteria appear to reflect different aspects of dependence.

PMID:
9744133
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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