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Fungal Genet Biol. 1998 Jun-Jul;24(1-2):178-206.

Dynamics of cell wall formation in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

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Faculty of Science, Graduate School of Science, Institute of Electron Microscopy, Japan Women's University, 2-8-1, Mejirodai Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112-8681, Japan.


Studies on the dynamics of surface and intracellular structures during cell wall formation from the reverting protoplast of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were reviewed, and the correlation between cell wall formation and actin cytoskeleton, which is the most important conductor of the mechanism, is described in this paper. A close spatial and temporal relationship between actin cytoskeleton and cell wall formation was found by using wild type and actin point-mutant cps8 of S. pombe. Concomitant with the cell wall formation, dynamic behavior of the intracellular secretion machinery, especially the Golgi apparatus and secretory vesicles, was analyzed by three-dimensional reconstruction of 40 to 80 serial sections at five reverting stages. Total reverting protoplast volume increased by 3.8 and 4.3 times at 3 and 5 h, respectively, and the volume of the Golgi apparatus in the corresponding stages increased 2.3- and 2. 5-fold over the same periods. The number of secretory vesicles also markedly increased by 3.4 and 5.8 times over that of the corresponding reverting protoplasts. Actin point-mutant cps8 cells have abnormal structure in the cell wall and septum, and the distribution pattern of the actin cytoskeleton during the reversion process was different from wild-type protoplasts. The profiles of actin showed one or two thick cables and patches in the cytoplasm which remained throughout reversion. The development of crosslinkage of the glucan fibrils which are beta-1,3-glucan in nature on the reverting protoplast surface was defective; the glucan networks consisted of thin, rope-shaped fibrils up to 30 nm in width which formed a ribbon-shape 200 nm wide in wild-type reverting protoplasts. The intrafibrillar space is not filled with amorphous particles of alpha-galactomannan in nature. The secretion machinery was seen to have a similar profile as the wild type. The above results suggest that actin cytoskeleton may control secretion of beta-1,6-glucan and other cell wall substances such as alpha-glucan and alpha-galactomannan rather than beta-1,3-glucan. Study of the role of actin cytoskeleton in the cell wall formation is contributing to the development of antifungal agents together with basic cell biology.

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