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J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1998 Sep;18(9):1008-17.

Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of cerebral hemodynamics during spreading depression in rats.

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Department of Radiology, Stanford University, California, USA.


High-speed magnetic resonance imaging was used to perform simultaneous measurements of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and water diffusion changes during spreading depression (SD) induced by cortical potassium chloride application. Rats were fitted epidurally with a rubber chamber. Potassium chloride was perfused through the chamber until SD was indicated by a negative direct current (DC) potential shift. Magnetic resonance imaging scans used echo planar diffusion and T2-weighted images. Iron dextran was injected as a blood pool contrast agent to make subsequent changes in T2 (or T2*) directly proportional to changes in CBV. Multislice maps of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and rCBV were generated with 6- to 16-second time resolution, which revealed transient ADC and rCBV changes propagating over the cortex after potassium chloride application. Transient ADC declines appeared simultaneously with the DC shift, whereas rCBV increase followed with a delay of 16.4+/-14.9 seconds. Prolonged rCBV decrease was observed after the initial increase during the SD in half of the animals. The delayed rCBV response after the ADC change supports the observation of increased energy demand because of repolarization. Simultaneous DC potential recording and ADC measurements in corresponding sites of the cortex indicate that transient ADC decreases during SD reflect water shifts associated with cell depolarization.

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