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J Clin Neurophysiol. 1998 Jul;15(4):288-304.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation in study of the visual pathway.

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Department of Physiology, State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, 11203, USA.


The authors critically reviewed experiments in which transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and repetitive TMS (rTMS) of the higher visual pathway were used. Topics include basic mechanisms of neural excitation by TMS and their relevance to the visual pathway (excitatory and inhibitory effects), TMS and rTMS of calcarine cortex (suppression, unmasking, and phosphenes), TMS of V5 (suppression), TMS and rTMS of higher level temporoparietooccipital areas (perceptual errors, unmasking, and inattention), the role of frontal lobe output in visual perception, and vocalization of perceived visual stimuli (role of consciousness of linguistic symbols).

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