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J Nutr. 1998 Sep;128(9):1450-7.

Cigarette smoking is associated with unhealthy patterns of nutrient intake: a meta-analysis.

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Département d'athérosclérose, Institut Pasteur de Lille, 59019 Lille cedex, France.


The aim of this investigation was to assess the relationship between smoking status and nutrient intakes using a meta-analysis. Publications in English were sought through a Medline search using the following key words: food habits, eating, feeding behavior, diet, food, nutrition, nutritional status or assessment, tobacco use disorder, tobacco, nicotine and smoking. Scanning relevant reference lists of articles and hand searching completed the data collection. No attempt was made to search for unpublished results. Paper selection was based on nutritional surveys including comparisons of smokers with nonsmokers. Fifty-one published nutritional surveys from 15 different countries with 47,250 nonsmokers and 35,870 smokers were used in the analysis. The estimates of size effects were calculated with the mean and variance values of each nutrient intake and the size of the sample. Smokers declared significantly (all P < 10(-5)) higher intakes of energy (+4.9%), total fat (+3.5%), saturated fat (+8.9%), cholesterol (+10.8%) and alcohol (+77.5%) and lower intakes of polyunsaturated fat (-6.5%), fiber (-12.4%), vitamin C (-16.5%), vitamin E (-10.8%) and beta-carotene (-11.8%) than nonsmokers. Protein and carbohydrate intakes did not differ between smokers and nonsmokers. There was no evidence of heterogeneity among studies. In conclusion, the nutrient intakes of smokers differ substantially from those of nonsmokers. Some of these differences may exacerbate the deleterious effects of smoke components on cancer and coronary heart disease risk.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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