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Ann Thorac Surg. 1998 Aug;66(2):649-52.

Subaortic obstruction and the Fontan operation.

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Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, Ontario, Canada.


Systemic outflow tract obstruction in the heart with a functional single ventricle promotes myocardial hypertrophy, and this has been shown to be an unequivocal risk factor for poor outcome at Fontan procedure. Such systemic outflow tract obstruction may be congenital or acquired. Those factors contributing to acquired systemic outflow tract obstruction in those patients with a double-inlet left ventricle, a rudimentary right ventricle, and a discordant ventriculoarterial connection include the size of the ventricular septal defect, previous pulmonary artery banding, and other volume unloading surgical procedures. Staging with a bidirectional cavopulmonary connection and construction of a proximal pulmonary artery-aortic connection or ventricular septal defect enlargement has neutralized this factor.

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