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Ann Periodontol. 1998 Jul;3(1):303-11.

Lifestyle and periodontal health status of Japanese factory workers.

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Department of Preventive Dentistry, Osaka University Faculty of Dentistry, Japan.


The present study investigated the association of lifestyles to periodontal health status of workers in a manufacturing company in Japan. In a annual health checkup, periodontal health status was assessed by using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) criteria and analysed by modified Miller's CPI score. Lifestyle information was also obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationship between lifestyle and oral health care variables and 2 indicators of periodontal health status. These were the modified Miller's CPI score and the probability of subjects in the upper 25th percentile of CPI distribution as an indicator of poor periodontal health. The modified Miller's CPI score was found to increase with age, but to vary according to the workers' lifestyles. In bivariate analyses, significant variables were age, smoking, alcohol consumption, toothbrushing frequency, toothbrushing method, and use of interdental cleaners. In multivariate analyses, age, smoking, and use of interdental cleaners had significantly independent effects. Amount of smoking or alcohol consumption was associated with periodontal health status. Excessive use of alcohol may contribute to the development of periodontal disease, although further investigations are required to confirm this finding. The data from this study indicate that lifestyles which include smoking and insufficient oral health care have an independent association with periodontal disease.

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