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Plant J. 1998 Jul;15(2):231-42.

FLD interacts with genes that affect different developmental phase transitions to regulate Arabidopsis shoot development.

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Graduate Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C.


A new fld mutant allele, fld-2, which significantly delayed flowering, was isolated and characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. Even under long-day conditions after more than 100 days in the greenhouse, the majority of fld-2 mutant plants had not bolted. In addition, mutant inflorescences produced more than 10 co-florescences that were subtended by a high number of rosette-like leaves before giving rise to flowers. The late-flowering phenotype of the fld-2 mutation could be partially overcome by both vernalization and GA treatment but it was not influenced by 5-azaC treatment. Phenotypic analyses of double mutants indicated that fld-2 is epistatic to early flowering mutants elf1, elf2 and elf3. In addition, fld-2 could enhance vegetative characteristics in embryonic flower 1 (emf1) mutants by causing many small sessile leaves in fld-2 emf1 double mutants. The relief of the terminal flower 1 (tfl1) mutant phenotype in fld-2 tfl1 double mutants, and the enhancement of leafy (lfy) and apetala1 (ap1) mutant phenotypes in fld-2 lfy and fld-2 ap1 double mutants, suggest that FLD is also likely to be involved in the floral transition. Our results strongly suggest that the FLD gene plays a key role in regulating the reproductive competence of the shoot and results in different developmental phase transitions in Arabidopsis.

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