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Yeast. 1998 Jul;14(10):923-33.

Co-existence of two types of chromosome in the bottom fermenting yeast, Saccharomyces pastorianus.

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1
Central Laboratories for Key Technology, Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd., Kanagawa, Japan. ytamai@kirin.co.jp

Abstract

The bottom fermenting yeasts in our collection were classified as Saccharomyces pastorianus on the basis of their DNA relatedness. The genomic organization of bottom fermenting yeast was analysed by Southern hybridization using eleven genes on chromosome IV, six genes on chromosome II and five genes on chromosome XV of S. cerevisiae as probes. Gene probes constructed from S. cerevisiae chromosomes II and IV hybridized strongly to the 820-kb chromosome and the 1500-kb chromosome of the bottom fermenting yeast, respectively. Five gene probes constructed from segments of chromosome XV hybridized strongly to the 1050-kb and the 1000-kb chromosomes. These chromosomes are thought to be S. cerevisiae-type chromosomes. In addition, these probes also hybridized weakly to the 1100-kb, 1350-kb, 850-kb and 700-kb chromosome. Gene probes constructed from segments including the left arm to TRP1 of chromosome IV and the right arm of chromosome II hybridized to the 1100-kb chromosomes of S. pastorianus. Gene probes constructed using the right arm of chromosome IV and the left arm of chromosome II hybridized to the 1350-kb chromosome of S. pastorianus. These results suggested that the 1100-kb and 1350-kb chromosomes were generated by reciprocal translocation between chromosome II and IV in S. pastorianus. Three gene probes constructed using the right arm of chromosome XV hybridized weakly to the 850-kb chromosome, and two gene probes from the left arm hybridized weakly to the 700-kb chromosome. These results suggested that chromosome XV of S. cerevisiae was rearranged into the 850-kb and 700-kb chromosomes in S. pastorianus. These weak hybridization patterns were identical to those obtained with S. bayanus. Therefore, two types of chromosome co-exist independently in bottom fermenting yeast: one set which originated from S. bayanus and another set from S. cerevisiae. This result supports the hypothesis that S. pastorianus is a hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus.

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