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Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Aug;27 Suppl 1:S54-63.

Bacterial topoisomerases, anti-topoisomerases, and anti-topoisomerase resistance.

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Infectious Disease Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.


Topoisomerases are ubiquitous enzymes necessary for controlling the interlinking and twisting of DNA molecules. Among the four topoisomerases identified in eubacteria, two, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV have been exploited by nature and the pharmaceutical industry as antibacterial targets. Natural products that are inhibitors of one or both of these topoisomerases include the coumarin and cyclothialidine classes, which interfere with adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, cinodine, flavones, and terpenoid derivatives. The plasmid-encoded bacterial peptides micron B17 and CcdB also inhibit DNA gyrase. The quinolones, a synthetic class of antibacterials that act on both DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV have had the broadest clinical applications, however. Quinolone congeners differ in their relative potencies for DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV Studies of an expanding set of resistant mutant enzymes and the crystal structure of the homologous enzyme in yeast have contributed to our understanding of interactions of these drugs with topoisomerase-DNA complexes and the ways in which mutations effect resistance.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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