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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Aug 18;95(17):9926-31.

ARNO3, a Sec7-domain guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ADP ribosylation factor 1, is involved in the control of Golgi structure and function.

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Centre d'Immunologie Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de Marseille-Luminy, Case 906, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France.


Budding of transport vesicles in the Golgi apparatus requires the recruitment of coat proteins and is regulated by ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) 1. ARF1 activation is promoted by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), which catalyze the transition to GTP-bound ARF1. We recently have identified a human protein, ARNO (ARF nucleotide-binding-site opener), as an ARF1-GEF that shares a conserved domain with the yeast Sec7 protein. We now describe a human Sec7 domain-containing GEF referred to as ARNO3. ARNO and ARNO3, as well as a third GEF called cytohesin-1, form a family of highly related proteins with identical structural organization that consists of a central Sec7 domain and a carboxy-terminal pleckstrin homology domain. We show that all three proteins act as ARF1 GEF in vitro, whereas they have no effect on ARF6, an ARF protein implicated in the early endocytic pathway. Substrate specificity of ARNO-like GEFs for ARF1 depends solely on the Sec7 domain. Overexpression of ARNO3 in mammalian cells results in (i) fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus, (ii) redistribution of Golgi resident proteins as well as the coat component beta-COP, and (iii) inhibition of SEAP transport (secreted form of alkaline phosphatase). In contrast, the distribution of endocytic markers is not affected. This study indicates that Sec7 domain-containing GEFs control intracellular membrane compartment structure and function through the regulation of specific ARF proteins in mammalian cells.

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