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J Clin Oncol. 1998 Aug;16(8):2817-24.

Transplant-lite: induction of graft-versus-malignancy using fludarabine-based nonablative chemotherapy and allogeneic blood progenitor-cell transplantation as treatment for lymphoid malignancies.

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1
Department of Hematology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA. ikhouri@notes.mdacc.tmc.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To investigate the use of a nonmyeloablative fludarabine-based preparative regimen to produce sufficient immunosuppression to allow engraftment of allogeneic stem cells and induction of graft-versus-leukemia/lymphoma (GVL) as the primary treatment modality for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and lymphoma.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

Fifteen patients were studied. Six patients were in advanced refractory relapse, and induction therapy had failed in two patients. Patients with CLL or low-grade lymphoma received fludarabine 90 to 150 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 900 to 2,000 mg/m2. Patients with intermediate-grade lymphoma or in Richter's transformation received cisplatin 25 mg/m2 daily for 4 days; fludarabine 30 mg/m2; and cytarabine 500 mg/m2 daily for 2 days. Chemotherapy was followed by allogeneic stem-cell infusion from HLA-identical siblings. Patients with residual malignant cells or mixed chimerism could receive a donor lymphocyte infusion of 0.5 to 2 x 10(8) mononuclear cells/kg 2 to 3 months posttransplantation if graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was not present.

RESULTS:

Eleven patients had engraftment of donor cells, and the remaining four patients promptly recovered autologous hematopoiesis. Eight of 11 patients achieved a complete response (CR). Five of six patients (83.3%) with chemosensitive disease continue to be alive compared with two of nine patients (22.2%) who had refractory or untested disease at the time of study entry (P = .04).

CONCLUSION:

These findings indicate the feasibility of allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation with a nonablative preparative regimen to produce engraftment and GVL against lymphoid malignancies. The ability to induce remissions with donor lymphocyte infusion in patients with CLL, Richter's, and low-grade and intermediate-grade lymphoma is direct evidence of GVL activity against these diseases. This approach appears to be most promising in patients with chemotherapy-responsive disease and low tumor burden.

PMID:
9704734
DOI:
10.1200/JCO.1998.16.8.2817
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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