Send to

Choose Destination
Urol Res. 1998;26(3):175-80.

Evaluation of urinary IL-1alpha and IL-1beta in gravid females and patients with bacterial cystitis and microscopic hematuria.

Author information

Department of Urology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA.



to determine IL-1alpha and IL-1beta levels in patients with bacterial cystitis, microscopic hematuria, and gravid females relative to a control group of normal subjects.


enzyme immunoassays were used to measure concomitantly urinary IL-1alpha and IL-1beta in clean catch urine samples from normal subjects (n = 31) and study patients (n = 46). All normal subjects and patients underwent urinalysis, urine culture, and urine creatinine level determination. Since the IL-1alpha assay was developed for serum, the utility of the assay for urine specimens was unknown. The key parameters of urine collection, processing and sample storage for IL-1alpha were evaluated in detail.


mean values +/- SEM (pg/mg) for IL-1alpha/ Cr and IL-1beta/Cr were control group (0.25 +/- 0.10 and 0.17 +/- 0.06), bacterial cystitis (9.97 +/- 1.15 and 42.45 +/- 1.86), and microscopic hematuria (2.81 +/- 0.65 and 2.82 +/- 0.70). Differences in cytokine levels between the control group and patients with either bacterial cystitis or microscopic hematuria were statistically significant for both IL-1alpha/Cr (P < 0.026; P < 0.007, respectively) and IL-1beta /Cr (P < 0.0004; P < 0.014, respectively). IL-1beta/Cr correlates better with pyuria than IL-1alpha/ Cr (P = 0.02 vs P = 0.44). In gravid females, only IL-1alpha was significantly elevated relative to non-pregnant females (IL-1beta elevation approached statistical significance). Gravid females with positive urine cultures could not be distinguished from those with negative cultures based on either interleukin (P > 0.05).


Significant elevations of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta occur in patients with bacterial cystitis and microscopic hematuria. Correlation between pyuria and cytokine elevation was stronger for IL-1beta than for IL-1alpha. Changes in IL-1alpha may reflect changes in the bladder epithelium rather than in the inflammatory leukocytes. The ability of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta to serve as markers for bacterial cystitis in gravid females is diminished due to high basal levels during pregnancy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center