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Lipids. 1998 Jul;33(7):647-54.

Comparative effects of alpha- and gamma-linolenic acids on rat liver fatty acid oxidation.

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1
Laboratory of Nutrition Biochemistry, National Food Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tsukuba Science City, Japan.

Abstract

It has been reported that both n-3 and n-6 octadecatrienoic acids can increase hepatic fatty acid oxidation activity. It remains unclear, however, whether different enzymes in fatty acid oxidation show a similar response to n-3 and n-6 octadecatrienoic acids. The activity of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes in rats fed an oil mixture rich in alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and borage oil rich in gamma-linolenic acid (18:3n-6) was therefore compared to that in rats fed an oil mixture rich in linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and a saturated fat (palm oil) in this study. Linseed oil served as the source of 18:3n-3 for the oil mixture rich in this octadecatrienoic acid and contained 30.6% 18:3n-3 but not 18:3n-6. Borage oil contained 25.7% 18:3n-6 and 4.5% 18:3n-3. Groups of seven rats each were fed diets containing 15% various fats for 15 d. The oxidation rate of palmitoyl-CoA in the peroxisomes was higher in rats fed a fat mixture rich in 18:3n-3 (3.03 nmol/min/mg protein) and borage oil (2.89 nmol/min/mg protein) than in rats fed palm oil (2.08 nmol/min/mg protein) and a fat mixture rich in 18:2n-6 (2.15 nmol/min/mg protein). The mitochondrial palmitoyl-CoA oxidation rate was highest in rats fed a fat mixture rich in 18:3n-3 (1.93 nmol/min/mg protein), but no significant differences in this parameter were seen among the other groups (1.25-1.46 nmol/min/mg protein). Compared to palm oil and fat mixtures rich in 18:2n-6, a fat mixture rich in 18:3n-3 and borage oil significantly increased the hepatic activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase and acyl-CoA oxidase. Compared to palm oil and a fat mixture rich in 18:2n-6, a fat mixture rich in 18:3n-3, but not fats rich in 18:3n-6, significantly decreased 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. Compared to palm oil and a fat mixture rich in 18:2n-6, borage oil profoundly decreased mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity, but a fat mixture rich in 18:3n-3 increased it. 2,4-Dienoyl-CoA reductase activity was significantly lower in rats fed palm oil than in other groups. Compared to other fats, borage oil significantly increased delt3,delta2-enoyl-CoA isomerase activity. Activity was also significantly higher in rats fed 18:2n-6 oil than in those fed palm oil. It was confirmed that both dietary 18:3n-6 and 18:3n-3 increased fatty acid oxidation activity in the liver. These two dietary octadecatrienoic acids differ considerably, however, in how they affect individual fatty acid oxidation enzymes.

PMID:
9688166
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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