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Microvasc Res. 1998 Jul;56(1):1-21.

TIE1 and TIE2 receptor tyrosine kinases inversely regulate embryonic angiogenesis by the mechanism of intussusceptive microvascular growth.

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Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, 02114, USA.


As shown previously, TIE1 and TIE2 receptor tyrosine kinases are specifically expressed in endothelial cells during embryonic angiogenesis. A detailed analysis of the vascular malformations of homozygous mice for a targeting mutation of both receptors was performed at the histological and cellular level. The data demonstrate that the TIE1 and TIE2 receptor inversely and concomitantly mediate interactions between endothelial cells with their extracellular matrix and with surrounding mesenchymal cells. These interactions are obviously crucial for normal endothelial cell motility and/or attachment and also for recruitment of periendothelial cells. The analysis of the TIE2-deficient embryos demonstrates how these cell/cell- and cell/matrix interactions subsequently influence the formation of normally structured tissue folds that divide the vessel lumen. They are also essential for the formation of vessel loops that compose a new vascular network and for the development of the ventricle in the heart. Fold and loop formation follow the principles of intussusceptive microvascular growth. The localization of the cardiovascular malformations corresponds to the temporal and spatial expression pattern of the TIE2 receptor. Angiopoietin-1, a ligand that activates the TIE2 receptor, is expressed in mesenchymal cells surrounding the endothelium. This local relationship is indicative of a paracrine regulation.

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