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Genes Dev. 1998 Jul 15;12(14):2188-99.

DNA end-independent activation of DNA-PK mediated via association with the DNA-binding protein C1D.

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  • 1Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research Campaign Institute of Cancer and Developmental Biology and Department of Zoology, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1QR, UK.


DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), which is involved in DNA double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination, is comprised of a DNA-targeting component termed Ku and an approximately 465-kD catalytic subunit, DNA-PKcs. Although DNA-PK phosphorylates proteins in the presence of DSBs or other discontinuities in the DNA double helix in vitro, the possibility exists that it is also activated in other circumstances via its association with additional proteins. Here, through use of the yeast two-hybrid screen, we discover that the recently identified high affinity DNA binding protein C1D interacts with the putative leucine zipper region of DNA-PKcs. Furthermore, we show that C1D can interact with DNA-PK in mammalian cells and that C1D is a very effective DNA-PK substrate in vitro. Finally, we establish that C1D directs the activation of DNA-PK in a manner that does not require DNA termini. Therefore, these studies provide a function for C1D and suggest novel mechanisms for DNA-PK activation in vivo.

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