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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Jul 9;248(1):9-12.

2-Methoxyestradiol, an endogenous metabolite of estrogen, enhances apoptosis and beta-galactosidase expression in vascular endothelial cells.

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First Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan.


2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME) is an endogenous metabolite of estradiol (E2) and is known to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. In the present study, the direct effects of 2ME on the vascular endothelial cells were examined. 2ME enhanced apoptosis and beta-galactosidase expression in bovine vascular endothelial cells. A nitric oxide (NO) donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamin (SNAP) also enhanced beta-galactosidase expression, suggesting a possible role of NO in mediating the action of 2ME. 2ME increased the cellular content of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the production of NO. In addition, 2ME altered the membrane localization pattern of NOS. These suggest that the effects of 2ME on apoptosis and senescence of vascular endothelial cells were mediated, at least partly, by NOS and NO.

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