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Mol Cell Biol. 1998 Aug;18(8):4499-508.

c-Myc or cyclin D1 mimics estrogen effects on cyclin E-Cdk2 activation and cell cycle reentry.

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Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St. Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia.


Estrogen-induced progression through G1 phase of the cell cycle is preceded by increased expression of the G1-phase regulatory proteins c-Myc and cyclin D1. To investigate the potential contribution of these proteins to estrogen action, we derived clonal MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines in which c-Myc or cyclin D1 was expressed under the control of the metal-inducible metallothionein promoter. Inducible expression of either c-Myc or cyclin D1 was sufficient for S-phase entry in cells previously arrested in G1 phase by pretreatment with ICI 182780, a potent estrogen antagonist. c-Myc expression was not accompanied by increased cyclin D1 expression or Cdk4 activation, nor was cyclin D1 induction accompanied by increases in c-Myc. Expression of c-Myc or cyclin D1 was sufficient to activate cyclin E-Cdk2 by promoting the formation of high-molecular-weight complexes lacking the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, as has been described, following estrogen treatment. Interestingly, this was accompanied by an association between active cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes and hyperphosphorylated p130, identifying a previously undefined role for p130 in estrogen action. These data provide evidence for distinct c-Myc and cyclin D1 pathways in estrogen-induced mitogenesis which converge on or prior to the formation of active cyclin E-Cdk2-p130 complexes and loss of inactive cyclin E-Cdk2-p21 complexes, indicating a physiologically relevant role for the cyclin E binding motifs shared by p130 and p21.

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