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J Immunol. 1998 Jul 15;161(2):610-6.

Norepinephrine accelerates HIV replication via protein kinase A-dependent effects on cytokine production.

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University of California at Los Angeles AIDS Institute, Department of Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine 90095-1678, USA.


To explore the role of sympathetic nervous system activation in HIV pathogenesis, we examined the effect of the neuroeffector molecule norepinephrine (NE) on HIV-1 replication in quiescently infected PBMCs that were subsequently activated with Abs to CD3 and CD28. NE accelerated HIV-1 replication at concentrations ranging from 10(-8) to 10(-5) M. This effect could be mimicked by protein kinase A (PKA) activators (forskolin or dibutyryl-cAMP) and abrogated by beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists or the PKA inhibitor rp-cAMP, indicating transduction via the adrenoreceptor signaling pathway. NE reduced cellular activation and altered the production of several HIV-modulating cytokines: IL-10 and IFN-gamma were markedly suppressed; TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 were mildly suppressed; and levels of IL-12 were not significantly altered. The addition of either exogenous IFN-gamma or IL-10 abrogated the effect of NE on virus production. Thus PKA-dependent suppression of cytokine production appears to mediate the enhancement of HIV-1 replication by NE.

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