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J Nucl Med. 1998 Jul;39(7):1230-6.

Nonmyeloablative iodine-131 anti-B1 radioimmunotherapy as outpatient therapy.

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Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor 48109-0028, USA.


The expected effective dose equivalent to an individual from contact with 131I anti-B1 radioimmunotherapy (RIT) patients released immediately after therapeutic infusion was estimated.


Effective dose equivalents were calculated retrospectively using data acquired on 46 patients treated with 1311 anti-B1 RIT as inpatients. Effective dose equivalents to members of the public were estimated using the method published in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 8.39, assuming the administered activity, the patient-specific effective half-life, the 0.25 occupancy factor, and no photon attenuation. Effective dose equivalents also were estimated using ionization chamber dose rates, measured immediately after therapeutic infusion and integrated to total decay based on the measured effective half-life.


For the whole-body treatment absorbed dose limit of 75 cGy (75 rad), the administered 131I activity ranged from 2.1 to 6.5 GBq (56 to 175 mCi), and the measured dose rate at 1 m ranged from 70 to 190 microSv/hr (7 to 19 mrem/hr). The total-body effective half-life for these patients ranged from approximately 40 to 88 hr. Using the NRC method and not accounting for the attenuation of photons, the mean dose equivalent to the public exposed to an 131I anti-B1 patient discharged without hospitalization was 4.9 +/- 0.9 mSv (490 +/- 90 mrem). The range was 3.2-6.6 mSv (320 to 660 mrem), where 48% of patients would deliver a dose to another individual that is <5 mSv (500 mrem) (i.e., 48% of the patients would be allowed to return home immediately following the infusion). Using the measured dose rate method, the mean dose equivalent to an individual exposed to the same RIT patients was 2.9 +/- 0.4 mSv (290 +/- 40 mrem). The range was 2.0-3.7 mSv (200-370 mrem), where 100% of the estimated effective dose equivalents were <5 mSv (500 mrem).


Based on calculated and patient-specific exposure data, outpatient RIT with nonmyeloablative doses of 131I should be feasible for all patients under current NRC regulations. Implementing outpatient RIT should make the therapy more widely available and more convenient and should lower patient care costs without exceeding accepted limits for public exposure to radiation.

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