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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998 Jun 30;851:139-46.

Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades as regulators of stress responses.

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Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92903-0636, USA.


Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play an important role in transducting environmental stimuli to the transcriptional machinery in the nucleus by virtue of their ability to phosphorylate and regulate the activity of various transcription factors. Originally found to be activated in response to occupancy of cell surface receptors for polypeptide hormones, cytokines, and growth factors, MAPK cascades were recently found to be activated by a variety of stresses including ischemia reperfusion, neuronal injury, osmotic shock, and exposure to UV irradiation. Therefore, MAPK cascades are likely to be important regulatory elements in a variety of stress responses.

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