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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Jul 7;95(14):8216-21.

Poliovirus vaccine vectors elicit antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells and protect mice against lethal challenge with malignant melanoma cells expressing a model antigen.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, Box 0414, San Francisco, CA 94143-0414, USA.


Recombinant polioviruses expressing foreign antigens may provide a convenient vaccine vector system to induce protective immunity against diverse pathogens. Replication-competent chimeric viruses can be constructed by inserting foreign antigenic sequences within the poliovirus polyprotein. When inserted sequences are flanked by poliovirus protease recognition sites the recombinant polyprotein is processed to mature and functional viral proteins plus the exogenous antigen. It previously has been shown that poliovirus recombinants can induce antibody responses against the inserted sequences but it is not known whether poliovirus or vaccine vectors derived from it can elicit effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. To examine the ability of the recombinant poliovirus to induce CTL responses, a segment of the chicken ovalbumin gene, which includes the H2-Kb-restricted CTL epitope SIINFEKL, was cloned at the junction of the P1 and P2 regions. This recombinant virus replicated with near wild-type efficiency in culture and stably expressed high levels of the ovalbumin antigen. Murine and primate cells infected with the recombinant virus appropriately processed the SIINFEKL epitope and presented it within major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Inoculation of mice with recombinant poliovirus that expresses ovalbumin elicits an effective specific CTL response. Furthermore, vaccination with these recombinant poliovirus induced protective immunity against challenge with lethal doses of a malignant melanoma cell line expressing ovalbumin.

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