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J Med Chem. 1998 Jul 2;41(14):2565-71.

Homonojirimycin isomers and N-alkylated homonojirimycins: structural and conformational basis of inhibition of glycosidases.

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Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokuriku University, Kanazawa 920-11, Japan.


A series of natural epimers of alpha-homonojirimycin and its N-alkylated derivatives have been prepared to investigate the contribution of the different chiral centers and conformation of the specificity and potency of inhibition of glycosidases. These epimers and N-alkylated derivatives are alpha-homonojirimycin (1), beta-homonojirimycin (2), alpha-homomannojirimycin (3), beta-homomannojirimycin (4), alpha-3,4-di-epi-homonojirimycin (5), beta-4,5-di-epi-homonojirimycin (6), N-methyl-alpha-homonojirimycin (7), and N-butyl-alpha-homonojirimycin (8). Compound 1 was a potent inhibitor of a range of alpha-glucosidases with IC50 values of 1 to 0.01 microM. Compounds 2, 3, and 4 were surprisingly inactive as inhibitors of beta-glucosidase and alpha- and beta-mannosidases but were moderately good as inhibitors of rice and some mammalian alpha-glucosidases. Compound 4 was active in the micromolar range toward all alpha-glucosidases tested. Furthermore, compound 4, which superimposes well on beta-l-fucose, was a 10-fold more effective inhibitor of alpha-l-fucosidase than 1-deoxymannojirimycin (12) and 3, with a Ki value of 0.45 microM. Only compounds 5 and 6 showed inhibitory activity toward alpha- and beta-galactosidases (6with an IC50 value of 6.4 microM against alpha-galactosidase). The high-resolution structure of 1 has been determined by X-ray diffraction and showed a chair conformation with the C1 OH (corresponding to the C6 OH in 1-deoxynojirimycin) predominantly equatorial to the piperidine ring in the crystal structure. This preferred (C1 OH equatorial) conformation was also corroborated by 1H NMR coupling constants. The coupling constants for 7 suggest the axial orientation of the C1 OH, while in 8 the C1 OH axial conformation was not observed. The C1 OH axial conformation appears to be responsible for more potent inhibition toward processing alpha-glucosidase I than alpha-glucosidase II. It has been assumed that the anti-HIV activity of alkaloidal glycosidase inhibitors results from the inhibition of processing alpha-glucosidase I, but 1, 7, and 8 were inactive against HIV-1 replication at 500 microg/mL as measured by inhibition of virus-induced cytopathogenicity in MT-4 cells. In contrast, the EC50 value for N-butyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (11), which also inhibits processing alpha-glucosidase I, was 37 microg/mL. Compound 7 has been shown to be a better inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase I than 1 and 8 both in vitro and in the cell culture system. These data imply that inhibition of HIV by glycosidase inhibitors can be due to factors other than simply inhibition of processing alpha-glucosidase I.

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