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Appl Environ Microbiol. 1998 Jul;64(7):2503-12.

Quantification of Gordona amarae strains in foaming activated sludge and anaerobic digester systems with oligonucleotide hybridization probes.

Author information

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 61801, USA.

Abstract

Previous studies have shown the predominance of mycolic acid-containing filamentous actinomycetes (mycolata) in foam layers in activated sludge systems. Gordona (formerly Nocardia) amarae often is considered the major representative of this group in activated sludge foam. In this study, small-subunit rRNA genes of four G. amarae strains were sequenced, and the resulting sequences were compared to the sequence of G. amarae type strain SE-6. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the five strains used represent two lines of evolutionary descent; group 1 consists of strains NM23 and ASAC1, and group 2 contains strains SE-6, SE-102, and ASF3. The following three oligonucleotide probes were designed: a species-specific probe for G. amarae, a probe specific for group 1, and a probe targeting group 2. The probes were characterized by dissociation temperature and specificity studies, and the species-specific probe was evaluated for use in fluorescent in situ hybridizations. By using the group-specific probes, it was possible to place additional G. amarae isolates in their respective groups. The probes were used along with previously designed probes in membrane hybridizations to determine the abundance of G. amarae, group 1, group 2, bacterial, mycolata, and Gordona rRNAs in samples obtained from foaming activated sludge systems in California, Illinois, and Wisconsin. The target groups were present in significantly greater concentrations in activated sludge foam than in mixed liquor and persisted in anaerobic digesters. Hybridization results indicated that the presence of certain G. amarae strains may be regional or treatment plant specific and that previously uncharacterized G. amarae strains may be present in some systems.

PMID:
9647822
PMCID:
PMC106418
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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