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Infection. 1998 May-Jun;26(3):155-9.

Gram-negative bacteremia in non-neutropenic patients: a 3-year review.

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  • 1Dept. of Internal Medicine, University of Crete, Greece.


The causative organisms, clinical manifestations, factors influencing prognosis, and other epidemiological characteristics of 81 episodes of bacteremia due to gram-negative organisms, in non-neutropenic patients, were studied retrospectively during a 3-year period (1992-1994) at the Department of Internal Medicine of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece. The gram-negative bacteremia incidence was 2% and the overall mortality 12%. All 81 patients had fever; Escherichia coli was the most frequent organism isolated (from 47 patients--58%) and was associated with shock (9/47), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (8/47), anuria (5/47), adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (3/47), and pneumonia (1/47). Other less frequent gram-negative microorganisms were Klebsiella spp. (ten patients; 12%), Pseudomonas spp. (7; 7%), Salmonella spp. (5; 6%), Enterobacter spp. (5; 6%), Proteus spp. (3; 3.4%), Stenotrophomonas spp. (3; 3.4%), and Acinetobacter spp. (1; 1.2%). ARDS. shock, DIC, anuria, presence of central venous catheter, urinary catheter, unknown origin of infection and inappropriate treatment were significantly associated with a higher death rate. Early initiation of appropriate therapy was the most important intervention that favorably affected the outcome of gram-negative bacteremias in this patient population.

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