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J Consult Clin Psychol. 1998 Jun;66(3):484-92.

Training in cognitive, supportive-expressive, and drug counseling therapies for cocaine dependence.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, USA.


This study assessed the effects of training on the performance of 65 therapists in delivering manual-guided therapies to 202 cocaine-dependent patients. Changes in ratings of therapists' adherence and competence was assessed in 3 treatment modalities: supportive-expressive dynamic therapy (SE), cognitive therapy (CT), and individual drug counseling. Effects of manual-guided training on the therapeutic alliance were also assessed. Training effects were examined through a hierarchical linear modeling approach that examined changes both within cases and across training cases. A large effect across cases was detected for training in CT. Supportive-expressive therapists and individual drug counselors demonstrated statistically significant learning trends over sessions but not over training cases. Training in SE and CT did not have a negative impact on the therapeutic alliance, although alliance scores for trainees in drug counseling initially decreased but then rebounded to initial levels.

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