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Cell. 1998 Jun 12;93(6):1031-41.

GBP, an inhibitor of GSK-3, is implicated in Xenopus development and oncogenesis.

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Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle 98195-7350, USA.


Dorsal accumulation of beta-catenin in early Xenopus embryos is required for body axis formation. Recent evidence indicates that beta-catenin is dorsally stabilized by the localized inhibition of the kinase Xgsk-3, utilizing a novel Wnt ligand-independent mechanism. Using a two-hybrid screen, we identified GBP, a maternal Xgsk-3-binding protein that is homologous to a T cell protooncogene in three well-conserved domains. GBP inhibits in vivo phosphorylation by Xgsk-3, and ectopic GBP expression induces an axis by stabilizing beta-catenin within Xenopus embryos. Importantly, antisense oligonucleotide depletion of the maternal GBP mRNA demonstrates that GBP is required for the establishment of the dorsal-ventral axis in Xenopus embryos. Our results define a family of GSK-3-binding proteins with roles in development and cell proliferation.

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