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Ann Emerg Med. 1998 Jun;31(6):688-97.

Intramuscular ketamine for pediatric sedation in the emergency department: safety profile in 1,022 cases.

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Department of Emergency Medicine, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, CA, USA.



To determine the safety of intramuscular ketamine when administered by emergency physicians for pediatric procedures in accordance with a defined protocol.


We assembled a consecutive case series of children aged 15 years or younger who were given ketamine in the emergency departments of a university medical center and an affiliated county hospital over a 9-year period. A protocol for ketamine use (4 mg/kg, intramuscularly) was followed. Treating physicians were instructed to complete data forms recording complications and adequacy of sedation concurrent with patient care. Subsequent chart review was used to determine indications, adjunctive drugs, time to discharge, and adverse reactions for all patients.


Intramuscular ketamine was administered 1,022 times, mainly for laceration repair and fracture reduction. Physicians completed data forms for 431 of treated children (42%). Transient airway complications occurred in 1.4%: airway malalignment (n = 7), laryngospasm (n = 4), apnea (n = 2), and respiratory depression (n = 1). All were quickly identified and treated without intubation or sequelae. Emesis occurred in 6.7%, without evidence of aspiration. Mild recovery agitation occurred in 17.6%, moderate to severe agitation in 1.6%. No child required hospitalization for complications caused by ketamine. Ketamine produced acceptable sedation in 98% of patients. The median time from injection to emergency department discharge was 110 minutes for children given a single dose of ketamine.


Intramuscular ketamine may be administered safely by emergency physicians to facilitate pediatric procedures in accordance with a defined protocol and with appropriate monitoring. Ketamine is highly effective, has a wide margin of safety, does not require intravenous access, and uniquely preserves protective airway reflexes.

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