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Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1998 May;17(5):398-402.

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis and early clinical manifestations of severe perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Northern California Pediatric HIV Consortium.

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Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305, USA.



Some children with perinatal HIV infection develop early progression to severe symptoms (Category C) within the first 4 years of life. Prophylactic therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) may affect progression by decreasing the incidence of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP).


HIV progression to Category C in the first 3 years of life was retrospectively analyzed in a population-based cohort of children with perinatal HIV infection followed for > or = 3 years from birth. Time to development of Category C and clinical patterns of new Category C diagnoses were examined in relation to patterns of PCP prophylaxis before diagnosis.


Fifty-eight of 147 children developed 67 initial category C diseases by 3 years of age: PCP (n=24), encephalopathy (n=22), other opportunistic infections (n=19) and wasting (n=2). Before diagnosis therapy included TMP/ SMX and zidovudine (ZDV) (n=11), TMP/SMX alone (n=7), ZDV alone (n=1) and neither (n= 39). The probability of developing a Category C diagnosis after 2 years was significantly lower among children who received TMP/SMX compared with those who did not (29%, TMP/SMX vs. 45%, no TMP/SMX; 30%, TMP and ZDV vs. 45%, no therapy; P < 0.01). The frequency of PCP was significantly lower and that of HIV encephalopathy was significantly higher among children receiving TMP/SMX +/- ZDV before Category C diagnosis than among children receiving neither.


In this study PCP prophylaxis was associated with longer time to Category C diagnoses in the first 3 years of life. This association was related to a decreased incidence of PCP and an increased incidence of encephalopathy as the first Category C diagnosis among children who received TMP/SMX.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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