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Am J Physiol. 1998 May;274(5):F940-5. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.1998.274.5.F940.

Effects of acute AT1 receptor blockade by candesartan on arterial pressure and renal function in rats.

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Department of Physiology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA.


Experiments were performed on normal anesthetized rats to determine the effects of candesartan, a novel AT1 receptor antagonist, on the arterial pressure and renal hemodynamic responses to bolus doses of angiotensin II (ANG II) and on renal hemodynamics and sodium excretion. Control arterial pressure responses to bolus ANG II doses of 10, 50, 100 and 1,000 ng were 26 +/- 6, 54 +/- 7, 57 +/- 7, and 79 +/- 7 mmHg; the decreases in cortical renal blood flow (CRBF), measured with laser-Doppler flowmetry, were 47 +/- 9, 64 +/- 8, 71 +/- 6, and 82 +/- 6%. The vasoconstrictor responses to ANG II up to 1,000 ng were completely blocked by candesartan doses of 1 and 0.1 mg/kg, whereas treatment with 0.01 mg/kg candesartan attenuated the arterial pressure and CRBF responses. The higher doses of candesartan (1 and 0.1 mg/kg) elicited rapid decreases in arterial pressure, leading to associated decreases in sodium excretion. Renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and urine flow also decreased following treatment with candesartan at 1 mg/kg. In contrast, when candesartan was given at 0.01 mg/kg, which did not decrease arterial pressure significantly, there were significant increases in GFR (16 +/- 4), RBF (9 +/- 2), urine flow (11 +/- 2), sodium excretion (35 +/- 7), and fractional sodium excretion (39 +/- 8%). The inability to overcome blockade, even with very high ANG II doses, indicates that candesartan is a potent noncompetitive blocker of ANG II pressor and renal vasoconstrictor effects. The lower candesartan dose that did not cause significant hypotension elicited substantial increases in RBF, GFR, and sodium excretion, revealing the direct renal vasodilator and natriuretic effects of AT1 receptor blockade.

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