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J Pak Med Assoc. 1998 Feb;48(2):40-2.

Effects of first and second trimester vaginal bleeding on pregnancy outcome.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Aga Khan University Medical Centre, Karachi.


The effects of vaginal bleeding during first and second trimester on pregnancy outcomes was assessed in a hospital-based population of 268 non-diabetic women. The group of non-bleeders comprised 173 females whereas, there were 71 females with first and 24 with second trimester bleeding. Fetal loss (abortion) occurred in 34% of first trimester and 25% of second trimester bleeders. Low birth weight and preterm delivery were significantly associated with second trimester haemorrhage. The results suggest that first and second trimester vaginal bleeding correlates with adverse infant outcomes.

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