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Vaccine. 1998 Jan;16(1):55-61.

The efficacy of an experimental oil-adjuvanted encephalomyocarditis vaccine in elephants, mice and pigs.

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Onderstepoort Institute for Exotic Diseases, South Africa.


An oil-adjuvanted inactivated encephalomyocarditis (EMC) vaccine was developed to protect a wild population of elephants against a natural outbreak of disease. The experimental vaccine was initially tested for efficacy by challenging mice and pigs. Mice showed protection against challenge and pigs developed high antibody levels. Since both vaccinated and control pigs failed to develop clinical disease, apparently due to the low virulence of the strain in this species, protection in pigs could not be evaluated. Vaccinated elephants developed high antibody titers which protected all vaccinates from a challenge roughly two months post-vaccination, whereas controls developed fatal or sub-clinical myocarditis. This is the first report of an inactivated EMC vaccine inducing high antibody titers in domestic and wild animal species. Due to the potency of this vaccine and the acceptability of the oil adjuvant used, it has potential for use in animals in zoological collections as well as in the pig industry.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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