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Curr Opin Immunol. 1998 Apr;10(2):226-32.

T lymphocyte differentiation in the periphery.

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Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, Pathology Department, St Louis, MO 63110, USA.


The development of immune responses is significantly influenced by emerging patterns of cytokine expression in activated CD4+ T cells. Recent efforts have clarified both cellular and molecular mechanisms, and within the past year include significant observations on potential sources of IL-4 leading to Th2 development against certain pathogens, and insights into early responses and genetic susceptibility to experimental murine Leishmaniasis and transcriptional regulation of the IL-4 locus. Advances in Th1 development have included greater understanding of IL-12 receptors in Th1 development, data regarding IFN-gamma gene expression and clarification of the action of the new cytokine IL-18.

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