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Oral Microbiol Immunol. 1997 Dec;12(6):358-65.

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of oral yeasts from Finland and the United States.

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Department of Periodontology, University of Helsinki, Finland.


A total of 4-22 isolates of oral yeasts per subjects from 48 yeast-positive Finnish and American subjects (25 females and 23 males) were phenotyped and genotyped to determine the frequency of simultaneous oral carriage of multiple yeast taxa. An oral sample from either periodontal pockets, oral mucosa or saliva was obtained. All subjects yielded Candida albicans and 3 subjects an additional yeast species (Candida krusei, Candida glabrata or Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The API 20C Aux kit distinguished 9 different carbohydrate assimilation profiles among the C. albicans isolates. Thirty-eight of 46 C. albicans biotype I isolates were categorized in a single numerical profile. PCR analysis, using a random primer OPA-03 and a repetitive primer (GACA)4, detected 2 major genotypic groups among the C. albicans isolates; 44 subjects showing isolates with a "typical" PCR-profile and 4 subjects isolates with an "atypical" PCR-profile. The "atypical" PCR-profile was similar to that of Candida dubliniensis. All C. albicans isolates assimilated xylose, except 5, including the 4 with an "atypical" PCR-profile. No difference was found in distribution of oral yeast species, and of C. albicans phenotypes and genotypes between Finnish and American subjects. The present PCR method may offer a rapid and easy means of distinguishing oral Candida species.

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